Distillate as medicine
The distillation process is already known, but in Poland, stronger alcohols are used only for medicinal purposes, by alchemists and perfumers. People drink wine and beer.
Distillation of rye and wheat
The start of production of rye and wheat distillates translates into recreational consumption of strong alcohol in Poland.
The Polish Parliament grants the nobility the privilege of producing and selling alcoholic beverages within their own properties. Previously, drinks had to come from royal cities.
Time of drunkenness
The social effects of easy access to alcohol are noticeable. Poles are known for their taste for drinking in large quantities. The Pope intervenes.
The conquest of Europe
Poland begins to export spirits abroad (e.g. to Germany, England, France). There are 680 distilleries in the port city of Gdańsk alone.
Demoralisation of society
The drunkenness of society is having increasingly serious effects. Drunken soldiers (including commanders) flee the battle of Korsuń even before the arrival of their opponents – the Tatars.
Intensive growth of distilling
Polish alcohols are gaining better quality, more and more professional factories with modern equipment (e.g. Lubomirski’s) are being built. Thanks to double distillation, the alcohol content of the spirit reaches 70%.
Rectification apparatus appears in Poland and Russia. The tables are filled with pure vodka, in line with today’s definition of this alcohol, i.e. made by diluting 95% rectified spirit.
State Spirits Monopoly
The beginning of the Second Polish Republic is the moment of establishing the State Spirit Monopoly. Private distilleries are being bought up and nationalised, with production limits imposed on them.
Polmos in the Polish People's Republic
The Polish Spirits Monopoly (or Polmos) continues the monopoly on spirit started during the Second Polish Republic. The number of types of vodka available is shrinking drastically, and the better quality spirits are only available in pewex shops.